Allied Warships

Events on this day

16 January

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This page is our compilation of data from several different databases. All data shown here is dynamic, but is accurate according to the information we have right now. Although content is still being added daily, more than 75% of the launched and commissioned data is already in place, so this section is almost complete.

Quick links: War losses - General events

The Shipyard Report


Laid down (22)

1919: US Navy Oiler Ramapo (AO 12)

1939: US Navy Submarine Tambor (198)

1941: Free French Navy Escort destroyer La Combattante - Royal Navy Corvette Cowslip (K 196) - Royal Navy Corvette Eglantine (K 197) - Royal Navy Rescue Tug Frisky (W 11) - Royal Navy Escort destroyer Haldon (L 19) - Royal Norwegian Navy Corvette Eglantine (K 197)

1942: US Navy Minesweeper Dynamic (AM 91) - US Navy Destroyer Mullany (DD 528)

1943: Royal Navy Frigate Duckworth (K 351) - Royal Navy Patrol vessel Kildary (Z 05) - Royal Navy Landing Craft Tank LCT 587 (LCT 587) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 277 - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 326 - US Navy Destroyer Escort Thomas (ii) (DE 102)

1944: Royal Navy Submarine Affray (P 421) - Royal Navy Destroyer Crown (R 46) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-736 (LCI(L)-736) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-737 (LCI(L)-737) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 733 (LST 733)

1945: US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 603

Launched (55)

1911: Royal Navy Armed Yacht Conqueror (FY 006 / F 33)

1919: Royal Navy Rescue Tug Rollicker (W 00) - Royal Navy Rescue Tug St. Blazey (W 46) - Royal Navy Destroyer Witherington (D 76)

1928: Royal Navy River gunboat Seamew (T 43)

1930: Royal Navy MS Trawler Lune (FY 588) - Royal Navy ASW Trawler Retriever (FY 261) - Royal Navy MS Trawler Snakefly (FY 575)

1934: Royal Navy Submarine Severn (N 57)

1935: Royal Navy Sloop Londonderry (L 76 / U 76)

1939: French Navy Minesweeper Commandant Duboc

1941: Royal Navy Corvette Armeria (K 187)

1942: Royal Navy Landing Craft Tank LCT 315 (LCT 315) - Royal Navy Corvette Lotus (ii) (K 130) - Royal Navy Motor minesweeper MMS 65 (J 565) - Royal Navy Destroyer Queenborough (G 70) - Royal Navy Frigate Swale (K 217) - South African Navy Frigate Swale (K 217) - US Navy Minesweeper Skipper (AMc-104)

1943: Royal Navy Minesweeper BYMS 2236 (J 1036) - Royal Navy Minesweeper BYMS 2264 (J 1064) - Royal Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-136 (LCI(L)-136) - Royal Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-267 (LCI(L)-267) - Royal Navy Motor Gun Boat MGB 188 (MGB 188) - US Navy Minesweeper Compel (AM 162) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-136 (LCI(L)-136) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-234 (LCI(L)-234) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-267 (LCI(L)-267) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 486 (LST 486) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 66 (LST 66) - US Navy Patrol craft PC-1260 (PC-1260) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 217 - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 219 - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 221 - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-1064 (SC-1064) - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-1304 (SC-1304) - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-1342 (SC-1342) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-159 (YMS-159) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-165 (YMS-165) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-236 (YMS-236) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-264 (YMS-264)

1944: US Navy Minesweeper Inflict (AM 251) - US Navy Destroyer Ingraham (ii) (DD 694) - US Navy Destroyer Escort John J. Van Buren (DE 753) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-407 (LCI(L)-407) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-730 (LCI(L)-730) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-731 (LCI(L)-731) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 141 (LST 141) - US Navy Destroyer Moale (DD 693) - US Navy Net tender Pinon (AN 66)

1945: Royal Navy Frigate St. Brides Bay (K 600) - US Navy Landing craft support LCS(L)-73 (LCS(L)-73) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 1097 (LST 1097) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 1120 (LST 1120) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 648

Commissioned (30)

1932: United States Coast Guard Patrol vessel Calypso (WPC 104)

1935: Royal Navy Minesweeper Hussar (J 82)

1936: Italian Navy Light cruiser Eugenio di Savoia

1939: US Navy Submarine Sculpin (191)

1941: Royal Navy Corvette Snowdrop (K 67)

1942: Royal Australian Navy Minesweeper Geelong (J 201) - Royal Navy ASW Trawler Butser (T 219) - Royal Navy Motor Launch ML 454 (ML 454) - Royal Navy MS Trawler Trondra (T 181) - Royal Norwegian Navy Corvette Potentilla (K 214)

1943: Royal Navy Harbour Defence Motor Launch HDML 1174 (ML 1174) - Royal Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-123 (LCI(L)-123) - Royal Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-186 (LCI(L)-186) - Royal Navy Motor minesweeper MMS 263 (J 763) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-123 (LCI(L)-123) - US Navy Landing Craft Infantry LCI(L)-124 (LCI(L)-124) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 371 (LST 371) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 452 (LST 452) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 178 - US Navy Submarine chaser SC-983 (SC-983) - US Navy Minesweeper YMS-226 (YMS-226)

1944: US Navy Landing craft support LCS(L)-93 (LCS(L)-93)

1945: Royal Australian Navy Harbour Defence Motor Launch HDML 1328 (ML 1328) - Royal Indian Navy Harbour Defence Motor Launch HDML 1263 (ML 1263) - US Navy Medium landing ship LSM 306 (LSM 306) - US Navy Medium landing ship LSM 307 (LSM 307) - US Navy Medium landing ship LSM 424 (LSM 424) - US Navy Tank landing ship LST 849 (LST 849) - US Navy Motor torpedo boat PT 628

1946: US Navy Medium landing ship LSM 546 (LSM 546)

Legend:

Laid down means that the ship's construction was officially started by laying down the keel (often just a single steel beam but could also mean the first of many pre-fabricated sections).

Launched means that the ship was launched from its shipyard, it then began its fitting out period (installation of smaller systems, weapons etc.) - in many yards the ships were launched very complete and needed little work afterwards.

Commissioned is when the navy takes the ship officially over and gives command of it to its new captain.

War Losses on 16 January (5)


1941: Royal Navy MS Trawler Desiree

1942: Royal Navy MS Trawler Irvana (FY 663)

1944: Royal Navy Landing Craft Tank LCT 1029 (LCT 1029)

1945: Royal Navy Tank landing ship LST 415 (LST 415) - Soviet Navy Destroyer Dejatelnyj

More information on Allied Warships losses.


General Events on 16 January


1940

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Diomede: At 1517Z/16, HMS Diomede (Commodore E.B.C. Dicken, OBE, DSC, RN), departed Scapa Flow for the Northern Patrol. She is to patrol to the south of the Faeroer Islands.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Durban: HMS Durban (Capt. A.C. Collinson, RN) made a short call at Nancowry Island.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Birmingham: HMS Birmingham (Capt. E.J.P. Brind, RN) arrived at Aden. She departed for Suez later the same day.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Liverpool: Around 0830 hours (zone -8), HMS Liverpool (Capt. A.D. Read, RN) departed Hong Kong for another patrol off Japan. She was also to intercept the Japanese liner Asama Maru (16975 GRT, built 1929) (offsite link) which had German nationals on board coming from the U.S.A. and that were trying to return to German via Japan and the U.S.S.R.. For the daily positions of HMS Liverpool during the period of 16 to 28 January 1940 see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Otway: HMS Otway (Cdr. H.R. Conway, RN) conducted exercises off Gibraltar.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Orpheus (i): HMS Orpheus (Cdr. C.J. Blake, RN) ended her 1st war patrol at Colombo.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Oswald: During 16 and 17 January 1940, HMS Oswald (Lt.Cdr. G.M. Sladen, RN), conducted exercises off Malta. During these exercises a practice attack was made on HMS Glorious (Capt. G. D'Oyly-Hughes, DSO, DSC, RN) that was escorted by two destroyers. These exercises also included night exercises.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Otus: HMS Otus (Lt.Cdr. E.C.F. Nicolay, RN) arrived off Astove Island.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Perseus (i): HMS Perseus (Lt.Cdr. P.J.H. Bartlett, RN) conducted exercises off Singapore together with HMS Stronghold (Lt.Cdr. R. Alexander, RN) and HMS Tenedos (Lt.Cdr. J.O'B. Milner-Barry, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Regulus (i): HMS Regulus (Cdr. J.M. Money, RN) conducted exercises off Hong Kong.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sunfish: HMS Sunfish (Lt.Cdr. J.E. Slaughter, RN) departed Harwich for her 5th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off Texel, the Netherlands. For the daily positions of HMS Sunfish during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 31: HMS H 31 (Lt. P.R. Ward, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Portland with MA/SB's.

Royal Navy Battlecruiser HMS Renown: In the afternoon, HMS Neptune (Capt. J.A.V. Morse, DSO, RN), parted company with HMS Renown (Capt. C.E.B. Simeon, RN), HMS Ark Royal (Capt. A.J. Power, RN, flying the flag of Vice-Admiral L.V. Wells, CB, DSO, RN), HMS Ajax (Capt. C.H.L. Woodhouse, CB, RN), HMS Hasty (Lt.Cdr. L.R.K. Tyrwhitt, RN) and HMS Hero (Cdr. C.F. Tower, MVO, RN). HMS Neptune then proceeded on patrol independently.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Dainty: Convoy SL 17. This convoy departed Freetown on 16 January 1940 for the Liverpool where it arrived on 4 February 1940. The convoy was made up of the following merchant vessels; Clumberhall (British, 5198 GRT, built 1930), Harpasa (British, 5082 GRT, built 1932), Hawnby (British, 5380 GRT, built 1936), King Edgar (British, 4536 GRT, built 1327), Loch Ranza (British, 4958 GRT, built 1934), Marconi (British, 7402 GRT, built 1917), Northmoor (British, 4392 GRT, built 1928), Oswerty Grange (British, 4684 GRT, built 1935), River Lugar (British, 5423 GRT, built 1937), Salvus (British, 4815 GRT, built 1928), Stonepool (British, 4803 GRT, built 1928) and Thomas Holt (British, 3585 GRT, built 1929). Escort was provided on leaving Freetown by the destroyer HMS Dainty (Cdr. F.M. Walton, RN). On 18 January near Dakar, the armed merchant cruiser HMS Carnarvon Castle (Capt.(Retd.) G.B. Lewis, RN) joined. She remained with the convoy until 2 February. HMS Dainty left the convoy when Carnarvon Castle joined. A/S escort in the Western Approaches was provided from 2 February onwards by the sloop HMS Rochester (Cdr. G.F. Renwick, RN) and the destroyers HMS Viscount (Lt.Cdr. M.S. Townsend, RN) and HMS Walker (Lt.Cdr. A.A. Tait, RN).

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Diana: With her short refit completed HMS Diana (Lt.Cdr. E.G. Le Geyt, RN) departed Sheerness to proceed to the Clyde.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Kelvin: Around 1530 hours, the damaged HMS Kelvin (Lt.Cdr. J.L. Machin, RN), arrived at Greenock. Repairs by HMS Woolwich (Capt. E.C. Thornton, DSC, RN) were completed on 23 January 1940.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Kipling: HMS Kipling (Cdr. A. St. Clair-Ford, RN) and HMS Westminster (Lt.Cdr. A.A.C. Ouvry, RN) escorted the armed merchant cruiser HMS Carinthia (Capt.(Retd.) J.F.B. Barrett, RN) during her gunnery exercises off Portland. In the afternoon the destroyers carried out gunnery exercises themselves.

1941

Royal Navy Heavy cruiser HMS York: HMS York (Capt. R.H. Portal, DSC, RN) returned to Suda Bay from patrol and convoy cover operations in the Aegean. She departed Suda Bay later the same day shortly after the destroyers HMS Ilex (Capt. H.St.L. Nicolson, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Hereward (Cdr. C.W. Greening, RN), HMS Mohawk (Cdr. J.W.M. Eaton, RN) and HMS Juno (Cdr. St.J.R.J. Thyrwhitt, RN) for convoy cover operations and also for operation 'Blunt'. These destroyers joined HMS York at sea at 0740/17. During this operation Commando troops from Crete were to be landed on Kaso Island. The operation was first postponed for 24 hours but was finally cancelled on the 18th. The destroyers parted company around 1800/17 to patrol indepently. They rejoined HMS York at 0730/18. HMS Hereward had already parted company at 1210/17 to proceed to Suda Bay with despatches. She rejoined HMS York around 1100/18 bringing orders from Suda Bay. The four destroyers parted company again around 1715/18. HMS York remained on patrol and returned to Suda Bay around 0715/20.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Durban: HMS Durban (Capt. J.A.S. Eccles, RN) departed Port Blair to resume her patrol.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Edinburgh: HMS Edinburgh (Capt. C.M. Blackman, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Vice-Admiral L.E. Holland, CB, RN) conducted torpedo firing exercises at Scapa Flow.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 9: HrMs O 9 (Lt. H.A.W. Goossens, RNN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown together with HMS Valena (Lt.Cdr. A.F.C. Gray, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Ursula: HMS Ursula (Lt. A.J. Mackenzie, RN) departed Gibraltar for her 14th war patrol (1st in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol in the Gulf of Genoa and to proceed to Malta afterwards. En route to the Gulf of Genoa she had to make her presence known off the Spanish coast. Before proceeding on patrol A/S exercises were carried out with the British destroyers HMS Faulknor (Capt A.F. de Salis, RN), HMS Fury (Lt.Cdr. T.C. Robinson, RN) and HMS Duncan (A/Capt. A.D.B. James, RN). After the A/S exercises were completed two practice attacks were made on HMS Faulknor.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Ursula: For the daily positions of HMS Ursula during her 14th war patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unbeaten: HMS Unbeaten (Lt. E.A. Woodward, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Dartmouth with HNoMS Mansfield (Cdr. F. Ulstrup, RNorN) and HMS Cornelian (T/Lt. H.F. Hayes, RNVR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Oberon: HMS Oberon (Lt.Cdr. E.F. Pizey, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS Shemara (Cdr.(Retd.) H. Buckle, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Otway: HMS Otway (Lt. H.R.B. Newton, RN) conducted exercises in the Clyde area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Parthian: HMS Parthian (Cdr. M.G. Rimington, DSO, RN) departed Piraeus for Alexandria.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trident: HMS Trident (Lt.Cdr. G.M. Sladen, DSC, RN) ended her 16th war patrol at Holy Loch.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unique: HMS Unique (Lt. A.F. Collett, RN) departed Malta for her 3rd war patrol (1st in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol the approaches to Tripoli, Libya. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Unique during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 28: HMS H 28 (Lt. L.W.A. Bennington, DSC, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Tobermory.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 33: HMS H 33 (Lt. R.M. Favell, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Neptune: The aircraft carrier HMS Furious (Capt. A.G. Talbot, DSO, RN), light cruiser HMS Neptune (Capt. R.C. O'Conor, RN) and the destroyers HMS Isis (Cdr. C.S.B. Swinley, DSC, RN) and HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St.J. Morgan, RN) departed Freetown to proceed to arrive at 2000A/23 in position 45°00'N, 19°00'W. The destroyers were to be detached to Gibraltar in position 17°00'N, 26°30'W which the force was to proceed through. However on the 18th it became apparent that HMS Furious and HMS Neptune had not enough fuel to proceed direct to the U.K. and that all four ships would proceed to Gibraltar. In the afternoon and early evening HMS Isis and HMS Encounter fuelled from HMS Neptune. Around 1700Z/21, the destroyers HMS Duncan (A/Capt. A.D.B. James, RN), HMS Fearless (Cdr. A.F. Pugsley, RN) and HMS Fury (Lt.Cdr. T.C. Robinson, RN) joined. They were all to arrive at Gibraltar on 22 January but they could not enter the harbour due to the bad weather conditions. They finally arrived at Gibraltar around 0930A/23.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Bonaventure (i): HMS Bonaventure (Capt. H.G. Egerton, RN) arrived at Alexandria. [See the event 'Operations Excess and Operation M.C. 4.' for 6 January 1941 for more info.]

Royal Navy Battlecruiser HMS Hood: After de-ammunitioning, HMS Hood (Rear-Admiral. I.G. Glennie, RN, flying the flag of Vice-Admiral W.J. Whitworth, CB, DSO, RN) enters the Dockyard Basis of the Rosyth Dockard and commences a refit.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Westcott: HMS Westcott (Lt.Cdr. W.F.R. Segrave, RN), HMRT Superman and HMRT Tenacity together pick up 143 survivors from the British passenger ship Oropasa that was torpedoed and sunk by German U-boat U-96 southeast of Rockall in position 56°28'N, 12°00'W.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Kandahar: Convoy US 8A. This convoy departed Colombo on 16 January 1941 for Suez where it arrived on 28 January 1941. The convoy was made up of the following troopships / merchant vessels; Christiaan Huygens (Dutch, 16287 GRT, built 1927), Devonshire (British, 11275 GRT, built 1939), Dilwara (British, 11080 GRT, built 1936), Dominion Monarch (British, 27155 GRT, built 1939), Indrapoera (Dutch, 10825 GRT, built 1925), Johan de Witt (Dutch, 10474 GRT, built 1920), Lancashire (British, 9557 GRT, built 1917), Nevassa (British, 9213 GRT, built 1913), Nieuw Zeeland (Dutch, 11069 GRT, built 1928), Rajula (British, 8478 GRT, built 1926), Rohna (British, 8602 GRT, built 1926) and Slamat (Dutch, 11636 GRT, built 1924). On departure from Colombo the convoy was escorted by the light cruiser HMS Capetown (Capt. P.H.G. James, RN) and the armed merchant cruiser HMS Antenor (Capt.(Retd.) D.I. McGillewie, RN). The heavy cruiser HMAS Canberra (Capt. H.B. Farncomb, RAN) provided cover to the south of the convoy until the 18th after which she returned to Colombo on 19 January 1941. While berthing there she hit a pier and sustained some damage. On 22 January the convoy escort was taken over by the AA cruiser HMS Carlisle (Capt. G.M.B. Langley, OBE, RN) and the destroyers HMS Kandahar (Cdr. W.G.A. Robson, RN) and HMS Kimberley (Lt.Cdr. J.S.M. Richardson, RN). On 23 January two more merchant vessels joined the convoy coming from Aden, these were the City of Lincoln (British, 8039 GRT, built 1938) and the Thurland Castle (British, 6372 GRT, built 1929). They were escorted by the sloop HMAS Yarra (Lt.Cdr. W.H. Harrington, RAN). On the 24th HMS Capetown rejoined the convoy. Early in the evening of 26 January HMS Carlisle and HMAS Yarra parted company with the convoy to proceed to Port Sudan where they arrived the following day. HMS Capetown and HMS Kimberley also parted company with the convoy to proceed to Aden where they arrived on the 28th. On the 27th the sole remaining escort, HMS Kandahar was relieved by HMS Grimsby (Cdr. K.J. D'Arcy, RN). HMS Kandahar then proceeded to Port Sudanwhere she arrived on the 28th. The convoy arrived at Suez also on 28 January 1941.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Kashmir: HMS Kashmir (Cdr. H.A. King, RN) and HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.T. Thew, RN) departed Plymouth for a night patrol in the western Channel area to cover coastal shipping.

Royal Navy Destroyer HMS Kelvin: HMS Kelvin (Cdr. J.H. Allison, DSO, RN) arrived at Rosyth. She departed again for the Humber later the same day.

1942

Royal Dutch Navy Destroyer HNMS Isaac Sweers: Operation MF 3. Two convoy’s (MW 8A and MW 8B) departed Alexandria on 16 January 1942 for Malta where they arrived on 19 January 1942. Convoy MW 8A was made up of the transports Ajax (7540 GRT, built 1931) and Thermopylae (Norwegian, 6655 GRT, built 1930). Escort was provided by the light (AA) cruiser HMS Carlisle (Capt. D.M.L. Neame, DSO, RN) and the destroyers HMS Griffin (Capt. H.St.L. Nicolson, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Arrow (Cdr. A.M. McKillop, RN), HMS Hasty (Lt. N.H.G. Austen, RN) and HMS Hero (Cdr. H.W. Biggs, DSO and Bar, RN). This convoy departed Alexandria at 0830/16. Convoy MW 8B was made up of the transports City of Calcutta (8063 GRT, built 1940) and Clan Ferguson (7347 GRT, built 1938). Escort was provided by the destroyers HMS Maori (Cdr R.E. Courage, DSO, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Legion (Cdr. R.F. Jessel, DSC, RN), HMS Gurkha (Cdr. C.N. Lentaigne, RN) and HrMs Isaac Sweers (Cdr. W. Harmsen, RNN). This convoy, which had a higher speed, 14 instead of 12 knots, then convoy MW 8A, departed Alexandria at 1530/16. Both convoys were to converge later but they were delayed by heavy weather. Cover for the convoy was provided by ‘Force B’ made up of the light cruisers HMS Naiad (Capt. G. Grantham, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral P.L. Vian, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Euryalus (Capt. E.W. Bush, DSO, DSC, RN), HMS Dido (Capt. H.W.U. McCall, RN) and the destroyers HMS Kelvin (Cdr. J.H. Alliston, DSO, RN), HMS Kipling (Cdr. A. St.Clair Ford, DSO, RN), HMS Kingston (Cdr. P. Somerville, DSO, DSC and Bar, RN), HMS Foxhound (Cdr. G.H. Peters, DSC, RN), HMS Hotspur (Lt. T.D. Herrick, DSC, RN) and HMS Havock (Lt. G.R.G. Watkins, DSC, RN). This force was due to sail at 2359/16. However when they left the harbour Alexandria was struck suddenly by very bad weather resulting in HMS Kingston and HMS Foxhound colliding with each other causing serious damage to both ships and they were unable to proceed. HMS Hotspur then fouled a propeller and was also unable to proceed. HMS Dido was delayed for a few hours and sailed only at 0545/17 while the remaining ships had departed at 0240/17. HMS Gurkha, escorting convoy MW 8B, was torpedoed at 0740/17 by the German U-boat U-133 in position 31°50'N, 26°15'E. She was towed clear of the burning oil by HrMs Isaac Sweers which managed to rescue 240 survivors. Only 9 of the crew of the Gurkha lost their lives. While rescueing the crew of the Gurkha, HMS Maori screened them and hunted the attacker but she was unable to obtain contact. HMS Gurkha sank at 0917/17. HrMs Isaac Sweers and HMS Maori then rejoined convoy MW 8B at 1125 hours. HrMs Isaac Sweers was detached at 1540/17 to land the survivors at Tobruk where she arrived at 1745/17 and already left again at 1830/17. She rejoined the convoy the following day at 0200/18. ’Force K’, made up of the light cruiser HMS Penelope (Capt. A.D. Nicholl, RN) and the destroyers HMS Sikh (Cdr. G.H. Stokes, DSC, RN), HMS Zulu (Cdr. H.R. Graham, DSO, DSC, RN), HMS Lance (Lt.Cdr. R.W.F. Northcott, RN), HMS Lively (Lt.Cdr. W.F.E. Hussey, DSC, RN) and HMS Jaguar (Lt.Cdr. L.R.K. Tyrwhitt, DSO, DSC, RN), left Malta at 1900/17 to make rendez-vous with the convoy on the morning of the 18th. Both convoy and ’Force B’ eventually joined up at 1100/18. ‘Force K’ made contact at 1315/18 and the convoy then proceeded westwards. There were a number of attacks by single German Ju-88 aircraft during the day but without damage to any of the ships. Before ‘Force K ‘had joined the transport Thermopylae was detached at 1130/18 due to engine defects and was ordered to proceed to Benghazi escorted by HMS Carlisle, HMS Arrow and HMS Havock. She was later able to make 13 knots and was then ordered to return to Alexandria. At 1930 hours on the 18th, air reconnaissance had not sighted any enemy warships so HMS Naiad, HMS Euryalus, HMS Dido, HMS Griffin, Kelvin, HMS Kipling, HMS Hero, HMS Hasty, HrMs Isaac Sweers and HMS Jaguar set course to return to Alexandria. HMS Maori joined ‘Force K’ vice HMS Jaguar and HMS Legion also proceeded to Malta as she was to dock there. At daylight on the 19th HMS Hero and HMS Hasty were detached to join the ships escorting the Thermopylae. However at 0945/19 the Thermopylae was hit by two bombs in the engine room during a bombing attack by a single German JU-88 pressed right home. The ship caught fire and could not be saved. She was eventually scuttled at 1153/19 in position 33°02'N, 24°16'E by a torpedo from HMS Havock. The remaining ships of the convoy arrived safely at Malta at 1530/19. Heavy enemy air attacks having been held off by effective fighter protection. ’Force B’ had also been attacked on the way back to Alexandria by single German JU-88’s. The only damage done was to HMS Naiad by a near-miss. In the afternoon of the 19th, HMS Kelvin was detached and ordered to proceed to Tobruk to pick up the survivors from HMS Gurkha and take them to Alexandria. The first ships to return to Alexandria were the ones from ‘Force B’. They arrived around 0830/20. HMS Carlisle, HMS Arrow, HMS Havock, HMS Hasty and HMS Hero arrived shortly afterwards as did HMS Kelvin later on the day with the survivors of HMS Gurkha.

Royal Dutch Navy Destroyer HNMS Isaac Sweers: HrMs Isaac Sweers (Cdr. W. Harmsen, RNN) departed Alexandria for operations in the eastern Mediterranean. [See the event for 16 January 1942, called 'Operation MF 3', for more information on these operations.]

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS K XVIII: After succesful trials HrMs K XVIII (Lt.Cdr. C.A.J. van Well Groeneveld, RNN) is ordered to return to Surabaya and then to proceed to Makassar Strait. As K XVIII has departed Surabaya two days before with stores and fuel for 14 days her Commanding Officer decided to proceed to Makassar Stait at once making this her 1st war patrol.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS K XI: HrMs K XI (Lt.Cdr. A.H. Deketh, RNN) is ordered to return to Singapore.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 24: HrMs O 24 (Lt.Cdr. O. de Booy, RNN) arrived at Belfast.

US Navy Submarine USS Swordfish: USS Swordfish (Lt.Cdr. C.C. Smith, USN) departed Surabaya, Java, Netherlands East Indies for her 2nd war patrol. She was to patrol in the Celebes Sea and in the Philippines. For the daily and attack positions of USS Swordfish during this patrol see the map below.

US Navy Submarine USS Seawolf: USS Seawolf (Lt.Cdr. F.B. Warder) leaves Darwin for her 3th war patrol loaded with some 40 tons of .50 calibre anti-aircraft ammunition for use by American forces on Corregidor.

Royal New Zealand Navy Armed Merchant Cruiser HMNZS Monowai: The New Zealands Navy armed merchant cruiser HMNZS Monowai (Captain George Robert Deverell, RN) was attacked by the Japanese submarine I-20 (offsite link) off Suva, Fiji Islands. The submarine was driven off by gunfire.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Oberon: HMS Oberon (Lt.Cdr. P.J.H. Bartlett, RN) conducted A/S exercises in the Clyde area with ML's.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Regent: HMS Regent (Lt. W.N.R. Knox, DSC, RN) departed Portsmouth for passage to Philadelphia, U.S.A. For the daily positions of HMS Regent during the passage from the U.K. to the U.S.A. see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS P 36: HMS P 36 (Lt. H.N. Edmonds, DSC, RN) ended her 4th war patrol (1st in the Mediterranean) at Malta.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS P 39: HMS P 39 (Lt. N. Marriott, DSC, RN) departed Gibraltar for her 3rd war patrol (2nd in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol in the Alboran Sea. She was escorted out by HMS Active (Lt.Cdr. M.W. Tomkinson, RN). For the daily positions of HMS P 39 during this patrol see the map below. No position is known for 23 January 1942.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 28: HMS H 28 (Lt. A.W. Langridge, RN) departed Rothesay for Portsmouth. She was escorted by HMS Breda (Capt.(Retd.) A.E. Johnston, RN) until Wolf Rock.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 33: HMS H 33 (Lt. J.H. Bromage, DSC, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 50: HMS H 50 (Lt. E.T. Stanley, RN) shifted from Tobermory to Oban. She was escorted by HMS Oxlip (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) F.B. Collinson, RD, RNR).

US Navy Submarine USS S-44: USS S-44 (Lt John Richard Moore) arrived at Balboa, Panama Canal Zone from the US east coast.

Polish Navy Submarine ORP Sokol: At 0130B/16, ORP Sokol (Kpt.mar. (Lt.Cdr.) B. Karnicki) arrived in position 40°07'N, 17°17'E to patrol in that area as ordered by Capt. S.10 in a signal received on 13 January.

1943

Royal Navy Heavy cruiser HMS Sussex: HMS Sussex (Capt. W.Y.La R. Beverley, RN) conducted speed trials on the measured miles at Scapa Flow.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Caradoc: HMS Caradoc (Capt. J.W. Josselyn, DSC, RN) arrived at Bombay.

Royal Dutch Navy Light cruiser HNMS Tromp: HrMs Tromp (Capt. J.B. de Meester, RNN) relaesed the Australian passerger / cargo ship Reynella (9780 GRT, built 1926, former Italian Remo). She then was to make rendes-vous with the Australian passerger / cargo ship Reynella (9780 GRT, built 1926, former Italian Remo) but this ship failed to show up at the rendes-vous and Tromp eventually set course to return to Fremantle.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 19: HrMs O 19 (Lt.Cdr. H.F. Bach Kolling, RNN(R)) departed Freetown for Falmouth.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 21: HrMs O 21 (Lt.Cdr. J.F. van Dulm, RNN) departed from Simonstown for East London. She is escorted by HMS Rockrose (Lt. E.J. Binfield, DSC, RNR).

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 10: HrMs O 10 (Lt.Cdr. Baron D.T. Mackay, RNN) conducted sound tests at Loch Goil. Upon completion of these tests she returned to Rothesay.

US Navy Submarine USS Pompano: With her overhaul completed USS Pompano (Lt.Cdr. W.M. Thomas) left Pearl Harbor for her 4th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off the Marshall Islands.

US Navy Submarine USS Greenling: USS Greenling (Lt.Cdr. H.C. Bruton) torpedoed and sank the Japanese transport ship Kimposan Maru (3261 GRT) west of Kavieng in position 02°47'S, 149°10'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Growler: USS Growler (Cdr. H.W. Gilmore) torpedoed and sank the Japanese passenger/cargo ship Chifuku Maru (5857 GRT) about 10 nautical miles north of Waton Island in position 04°00'S, 151°55'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Wahoo: USS Wahoo (Lt.Cdr. D.W. Morton) departed from Brisbane for her 3rd war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off Palau.

US Navy Submarine USS Peto: USS Peto (Lt.Cdr. W.T. Nelson, USN) departed New Orleans, Louisiana for the Panama Canal Zone.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sturgeon: HMS Sturgeon (Lt. A.W. Langridge, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Mers el Kebir with HMS Eskimo (Capt. J.W.M. Eaton, DSO, DSC, RN) and HMS Calpe (Lt.Cdr. H. Kirkwood, DSC, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Simoom: HMS P 225 (Lt. C.H. Rankin, RN) conducted gunnery and D/F trials in the Clyde area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Splendid: HMS P 228 (Lt. I.L.M. McGeogh, RN) finished off the damaged Italian merchant Emma (7931 GRT, built 1942). The torpedo boat Clio had vainly attempted to take her in tow but the rough seas made the operation very difficult. Groppo tried it too but gave up. The weather was in fact so bad that the three torpedo boats were forced to turn back to Naples. Two tugs sailed from Naples to assist her but did not arrive in time. In the afternoon P 228 was ordered to return to her initial patrol area, the East coast of Sardinia. (All times are zone -1) 0115 hours - Surfaced to charge. The target could be seen at a range of 8000 yards to the South-East. One destroyer was still standing by. Two other destroyers were to the North-West, sweeping. During the rest of the night the target was kept in sight. 0600 hours - Dived deep and loaded two torpedoes. Also started to close the target. 0715 hours - Came to periscope depth. Saw the target at a range of 2500 yards. One destroyer was still with her. A tug was seen alongside the target and soon afterwards the tow towards Naples began. Fortunately the target had to be towed towards P 228 to get there. Started attack. 0835 hours - Fired one torpedo from 750 yards. It hit. Breaking up noises were heard immediately afterwards. 0845 hours - Returned to periscope depth. A destroyer and two tugs were in sight but the merchant ship had gone so it must have sunk. P 228 then went to 70 feet and withdrew to the North-West. No immediate counter attack followed. 1005 hours - Depth control was lost and P 228 broached. She dived immediately again. 1007 hours - A depth charge exploded fairly near. HE and ASDIC impulses were also picked up coming nearer. P 228 went to 350 feet. A pattern of 10 depth charges were dropped which exploded close astern. After this attack the enemy lost contact. P 228 meanwhile continued to retire to the North-West. 1400 hours - Returned to periscope depth. No ship or aircraft in sight.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sportsman: HMS P 229 (Lt. R. Gatehouse, DSC, RN) conducted torpedo discharge trials off Arrochar.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Taku: HMS Taku (Lt. A.J.W. Pitt, RN) conducted exercises off Beirut.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trespasser: HMS P 312 (Lt. R.M. Favell, RN) departed from Lerwick bound for Holy Loch. She made the passage together with HMS P 49 (Lt. J.P. Fyfe, RN), HMS P 55 (Lt. A.D. Piper, DSC and 2 bars, RNR). They were escorted by HMS Cutty Sark (Cdr.(Retd.) R.H. Mack, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unbending: HMS P 37 (Lt. E.T. Stanley, DSC, RN) was undocked.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unbroken: HMS P 42 (Lt. A.C.G. Mars, DSO, RN) departed Malta for her 11th war patrol (also 11th in the Mediterranean). She was ordered to patrol in the Gulf of Gabes. For the daily and attack positions of HMS P 42 during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unison: HMS P 43 (Lt. A.R. Daniell, DSC, RN) ended her 9th war patrol (7th in the Mediterranean) at Malta.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unruffled: HMS P 46 (Lt. J.S. Stevens, DSC, RN) was undocked.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unruly: HMS P 49 (Lt. J.P. Fyfe, RN) ended her 1st war patrol at Lerwick. She departed for Holy Loch later the same day. She made the passage together with HMS P 312 (Lt.Cdr. R.M. Favell, RN), HMS P 55 (Lt. A.D. Piper, DSC and 2 bars, RNR). They were escorted by HMS Cutty Sark (Cdr.(Retd.) R.H. Mack, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unsparing: HMS P 55 (Lt. A.D. Piper, DSC and 2 bars, RNR) ended her 1st war patrol at Lerwick. She departed for Holy Loch later the same day. She made the passage together with HMS P 312 (Lt.Cdr. R.M. Favell, RN), HMS P 49 (Lt. J.P. Fyfe, RN). They were escorted by HMS Cutty Sark (Cdr.(Retd.) R.H. Mack, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 28: HMS H 28 (Lt. T.S. Weston, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS Boarhound (Skr. A. Keable, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 32: HMS H 32 (Lt. T.G. Ridgeway, RN) arrived at Portsmouth.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 33: HMS H 33 (Lt. M.H. Jupp, DSC, RN) shifted from Campbeltown to Ardrishaig.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 43: HMS H 43 (Lt. R. Boyd, DSC, RN) participated in special RDF trials with a shore RDF station and aircraft in Moelfre Bay. Upon completion of these exercises HMS H 43 proceeded to Holyhead.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 44: HMS H 44 (Lt. I.S. McIntosh, RN) shifted from Rothesay to Kames Bay where she was immediately docked.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Penelope: In the morning HMS Penelope (Capt. G.D. Belben, DSC, AM, RN) conducted gunnery exercises off Scapa Flow. Upon completion of these she set course for the Clyde.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Newfoundland: HMS Newfoundland (Capt. W.R. Slayter, DSC, RN) conducted full power trials off the Firth of Forth.

US Navy Submarine USS R-4: USS R-4 (Lt.Cdr. P.W. Garnett, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-11: USS R-11 (Lt.Cdr. I.J. Galantin, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-12: USS R-12 (Lt.Cdr. E.E. Shelby, USN) participated in A/S exercises off Guantanamo Bay together with USS Biddle (Lt.Cdr. T.A. Torgerson, USN) and USS PC-625.

US Navy Submarine USS R-13: USS R-13 (Lt.Cdr. A.R. Gallaher, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-14: USS R-14 (Lt.Cdr. G.W. Kehl, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-20: USS R-20 (Lt. E.T. Shepard, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Graph: HMS Graph (Lt. P.B. Marriott, RN) arrived at Holy Loch. She is used for training duties from now on.

1944

US Navy Escort carrier USS Guadalcanal: German U-boat U-544 was sunk in the North Atlantic north-west of the Azores, in position 40°30'N, 37°20'W, by depth charges and rockets from Avenger aircraft (VC-13) of the US escort carrier USS Guadalcanal.

US Navy Battleship USS Iowa: USS Iowa (Capt. J.L. McCrea, USN) and USS New Jersey (Capt. C.F. Holden, USN) refuelled their escorting destroyers at sea.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS O 9: HrMs O 9 (Lt. J.B.M.J. Maas, RNN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS La Cordeliere (Lt.Cdr. A.J.G. Barff, RNR).

US Navy Submarine USS Swordfish: USS Swordfish (Capt. K.G. Hensel, USN) torpedoed and sank the Japanese auxiliary gunboat (Q-Ship) Delhi Maru (2205 GRT, built 1922) off Miyake Jima, Honshu, Japan in position 34°04'N, 139°56'E. Delhi Maru was with anti-submarine net layer Tatsu Maru (253 GRT, built 1916). They were escorted by the submarine chaser CH 50 (offsite link). (All times are zone -9) 15 January 1944 2217 hours - Obtained a radar contact at a range of 14000 yards. Commenced tracking. 2247 hours - Obtained radar contact on an escort vessel at a range of 8850 yards. 2350 hours - Went to battle stations and closed for attack. 16 January 1944 0003 hours - Dived to radar depth. Went to periscope depth when range was 6200 yards. 0020 hours - Fired three torpedoes from 1500 yards. Three hits were heard and observed. Swordfish then went deep. 0023 - The first depth charge was dropped. 0025 to 0040 hours - A whole lot of explosions were heard. It is hought the ship sank at 0040 hours. 0024 hours - A depth charge exploded. 0102 hours - A depth charge exploded. 0104 hours - A depth charge exploded. 0222 hours - Three depth charges were dropped quite close aboard. 0235 hours - Four more depth charges followed. These escorts were hard to shake off. 0318 hours - Surfaced. 0319 hours - Sighted an escort four nautical miles astern. Went to full speed to clear the area.

US Navy Submarine USS Seawolf: USS Seawolf (Lt.Cdr. R.L. Gross) torpedoed and damaged the transport ship Tarushima Maru (4865 GRT) in the Philippine Sea in position 23°00'N, 135°00'E. USS Whale later finishes off the damaged Japanese ship in position 22°50'N, 135°40'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Sturgeon: USS Sturgeon (Lt.Cdr. Charlton Lewis Murphy, Jr.) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese destroyer Suzutsuki (offsite link) in the Bungo Channel in position 32°15'N, 132°29'E. Suzutsuki is hit by two torpedoes. The bow and the stern were blown off. 135 members of her crew, including the captain, were killed. Suzutsuki was out of action until October 1944.

US Navy Submarine USS Blackfish: USS Blackfish (Lt.Cdr. J.F. Davidson) torpedoed and sank the Japanese troop transport Kaika Maru (2087 GRT) about 275 nautical miles south-west of Truk in position 03°50'N, 148°41'E. In the same attack, Blackfish also claims damaging a "4500-ton tanker" with 1 hit out of 4 torpedoes. This is unconfirmed.

US Navy Submarine USS Whale: USS Whale (Lt.Cdr. A.C. Burrows) torpedoed and sank the Japanese transport ship Denmark Maru (5869 GRT) about 400 nautical miles southeast of Okinawa in position 23°09'N, 135°14'E. She also finishes off the Japanese troop transport Tarushima Maru (4865 GRT, torpedoed earlier that day by USS Seawolf) in position 22°50'N, 135°40'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Bluegill: USS Bluegill conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS Flier: During a storm USS Flier (Lt.Cdr. J.D. Crowley) is grounded at Midway. Flier is heavily damaged and towed back to Pearl Harbor. She is sent to the Mare Island Navy Yard to make full repairs.

US Navy Submarine USS Jack: USS Jack (Lt.Cdr. T.M. Dykers) departed from Pearl Harbor for her 3rd war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the South China Sea.

US Navy Submarine USS Redfin: USS Redfin (Lt.Cdr. R.D. King) torpedoed and damaged the Japanese destroyer Amatsukaze (offsite link) in the South China Sea about 250 nautical miles north of the Spratly Islands, in position 14°40'N, 113°50'E.

US Navy Submarine USS Billfish: On 16 and 17 January 1944, USS Billfish (Cdr. V.C. Turner, USN), conducted exercises off Fremantle together with USS Chanticleer (Cdr. R.E. Hawes, USN).

US Navy Submarine USS Bowfin: USS Bowfin (Lt.Cdr. W.T. Griffith, USN) sank a schooner with gunfire in the Makassar Strait in position 02°54'S, 118°24'E. (All times are zone H, -8) 1830 hours - It has been very quiet in Makassar Strait. We have not seen a single ship since we were on station. But finally saw a small native sail boat in position 02°52'S, 118°30'E. As he was directly on the usual submarine path closed him to inspect. There were three natives onboard cooking supper. While inspecting him saw what appeared to be the single mast with a sail of another small native vessel about 7 miles to the north. Closed this vessel. 1900 hours - On closing this second craft noticed to our amazement that he was a nicely painted white schooner but he did not have a schooner rig. He had the rig of a small fishing boat which effectively disguised him from a distance. When we closed to inspect a crew of five were seen to jump overboard without dropping the sails. Sank the schooner with 20mm gunfire in position 02°54'S, 118°24'E. 1915 hours - Set a course for the north of Balikpapan. Total ammunition expended; 798 rounds of 20mm.

US Navy Submarine USS Seahorse: USS Seahorse (Lt.Cdr. S.D. Cutter) torpedoed and sank the Japanese merchant Nikko Maru (784 GRT) south-east of the Mariana Islands in position 12°49'N, 150°19'E.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Ursula: HMS Ursula (Lt. A.G. Davies, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Campbeltown with HMS Bedlington (Skr. A.W. Peak, RNR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Clyde: HMS Clyde (Lt.Cdr. R.S. Brookes, DSO, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Plymouth with HMS Peterhead (Lt. D.P. Croom-Johnson, RNVR) and HMS Blyth (T/A/Lt.Cdr. W.R.S. Smith, RNVR).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sunfish: HMS Sunfish (Lt. H.J. Bartlett, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Scapa Flow with HrMs Zwaardvisch (Lt.Cdr. H.A.W. Goossens, RNN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sibyl: HMS Sibyl (Lt. P.H. May, RN) is docked at Port Said.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sea Rover: HMS Sea Rover (Lt. J.P. Angell, RN) transits the Suez Canal and arrived at Suez.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Sea Nymph: HMS Sea Nymph (Lt. J.P.H. Oakley, DSC, RN) departed Lerwick for her 9th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol in the Bodø area. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Sea Nymph during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Spiteful: HMS Spiteful (Lt.Cdr. F.H. Sherwood, DSC, RCNVR) arrived at Holy Loch.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stonehenge: HMS Stonehenge (Lt. D.S.M. Verschoyle-Campbell, DSC and Bar, RN) arrived at Colombo.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stratagem: HMS Stratagem (T/Lt. R.L. Willoughby, RNR) departed Lerwick for Dundee.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Strongbow: HMS Strongbow (Lt. J.A.R. Troup, DSC, RN) conducted night attack exercises in the Clyde area during which HMS Vindex (Capt. H.T.T. Bayliss, RN) served as the target.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stubborn: HMS Stubborn (Lt. A.A. Duff, DSC, RN) arrived at Lerwick. After a few hours she departed Lerwick for her 7th war patrol. She was ordered to patrol off central Norway off Kya. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Stubborn during this patrol see the map below.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Surf: HMS Surf (Lt. D. Lambert, DSC, RN) was undocked.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Statesman: HMS Statesman (Lt. R.G.P. Bulkeley, RN) shifted from Campbeltown to Larne.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trident: HMS Trident (Lt. P.E. Newstead, RN) arrived at Rothesay.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Taku: HMS Taku (Lt. A.J.W. Pitt, RN) departed Lerwick for passage to Holy Loch. She made the passage together with HMS Unswerving (T/Lt. M.D. Tattersall, RNVR). Around 0930/17 they made rendez-vous off Scapa Flow with HrMs Zwaardvisch (Lt.Cdr. H.A.W. Goossens, RNN) and their escort HMS La Capricieuse (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) C.M. Norman, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Trusty: HMS Trusty (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) J.R.G. Harvey, RN) conducted independent exercises in the Clyde area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tudor: HMS Tudor (Lt. S.A. Porter, DSC, RN) conducted speed trials on the Arran measured mile.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Uther: HMS Uther (Lt. A.A. Catlow, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Fishguard with aircraft.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unswerving: HMS Unswerving (T/Lt. M.D. Tattersall, RNVR) departed Lerwick for passage to Holy Loch. She made the passage together with HMS Taku (Lt. A.J.W. Pitt, RN). Around 0930/17 they made rendez-vous off Scapa Flow with HrMs Zwaardvisch (Lt.Cdr. H.A.W. Goossens, RNN) and their escort HMS La Capricieuse (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) C.M. Norman, RN).

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Vampire: HMS Vampire (Lt. C.W. Taylor, RNR) shifted from Larne to Holy Loch.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Vigorous: HMS Vigorous (Lt. J.C. Ogle, DSC, RN) conducted radar and gunnery exercises in the Clyde area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Vox: HMS Vox (Lt. J.M. Michell, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow where she was to participate in A/S exercises.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS H 32: HMS H 32 (Lt. K.S. Renshaw, DSC, RNR) shifted from Rothesay to Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS P 511: HMS P 511 (Lt. E.A. Hobson, DSC, RN) participated in A/S exercises off Campbeltown.

Royal Navy Battlecruiser HMS Renown: Around 0200 hours, HMS Queen Elizabeth (Capt. H.G. Norman, CBE, RN), HMS Valiant (Capt. G.E.M. O’Donnell, DSO, RN), HMS Renown (Capt. B.C.B. Brooke, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral A.J. Power, KCB, CVO, RN, second in command of the Eastern Fleet), returned to harbour after their exercises. Around 0900 hours, HMS Illustrious (Capt. R.L.B. Cunliffe, RN, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral C. Moody, CB, RN) and HMS Unicorn (Capt. H.L.St.J. Fancourt, DSO, RN) departed Suez to proceed southwards through the Red Sea. They were escorted by the destroyers HMS Paladin (Lt. E.A.S. Bailey, DSC, MBE, RN), HMS Pathfinder (Lt. T.F. Hallifax, RN), HMS Petard (Lt.Cdr. R.C. Egan, RN) and HMS Rocket (Lt.Cdr. H.B. Acworth, OBE, RN). Around 1030 hours, HMS Queen Elizabeth, HMS Valiant and HMS Renown departed Suez and headed southwards to rendezvous with the carrier force on the following day.

Royal Navy Battleship HMS Rodney: Around 2100A/16, HMS Rodney (Capt. R.O. Fitzroy, RN), which was well overdue for a major refit, departed Scapa Flow for Rosyth. She was escorted by the destroyers HMS Onslaught (Capt. W.H. Selby, DSC, RN) and HMS Orwell (Lt.Cdr. J.M. Hodges, DSO, RN). HMS Rodney arrived at Rosyth around 0900A/17. The destroyers returned to Scapa Flow after their escort duty. They arrived at Scapa Flow around 1800A/17.

US Navy Submarine USS R-20: USS R-20 (Lt.Cdr. E.T. Shepard, USN) conducted trials off Key West.

1945

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Dauntless: HMS Dauntless (Cdr. D.C. Kinloch, DSO, RN) and HMS Diomede (Cdr. R.A. Ewing, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Methil.

US Navy Destroyer Escort USS Hubbard: German U-boat U-248 was sunk in the North Atlantic in position 47°43'N, 26°37'W, by depth charges from the US destroyer escorts USS Hayter, USS Otter, USS Varian and USS Hubbard.

US Navy Destroyer USS Harry E. Hubbard: USS Harry E. Hubbard (Cdr Arthur Montgomery Purdy) departed from Norfolk bound for the Pacific.

Royal Dutch Navy Submarine HNMS Zeehond: HrMs Zeehond (Lt.Cdr. Baron D.T. Mackay, RNN) departed Scapa Flow for Dundee. She was escorted by HNoMS Narvik.

US Navy Submarine USS Caiman: During the night of 16/17 January 1945, USS Caiman (Cdr. F.C. Lucas, Jr., USN), made the southbound passage of Lombok Strait on the suface.

US Navy Submarine USS Brill: USS Brill (Cdr. H.B. Dodge, USN) conducted exercises off Pearl Harbour together with USS Austin (Lt. W.H. White, USNR), USS Harold C. Thomas (Lt. G. Cheshire, Jr., USNR) and USS Trepang (Cdr. A.R. Faust, USN).

US Navy Submarine USS Bullhead: USS Bullhead (Cdr. W.T. Griffith, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS Tigrone: USS Tigrone (Cdr. H. Cassedy, USN) departed from Key West bound for the Panama Canal Zone.

US Navy Submarine USS Tigrone: USS Tigrone (Cdr. H. Cassedy, USN) departed Key West, Florida for the Panama Canal Zone.

US Navy Submarine USS Tirante: USS Tirante (Lt.Cdr. G.L. Street, III, USN) arrived in the Panama Canal Zone.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Clyde: HMS Clyde (Lt. R.H. Bull, DSC, RN) returned to Trincomalee on completion of last night's exercises.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Spiteful: HMS Spiteful (Lt.Cdr. F.H. Sherwood, DSC, RCNVR) Topped off with fuel at Exmouth Gulf before proceeding to her patrol area.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Spark: HMS Spark (Lt. D.G. Kent, RN) departed Fremantle for 3rd war patrol (2nd in the Far East, 1st in the South-West Pacific area). She was ordered to patrol in the Java Sea. For the daily and attack positions of HMS Spark during this patrol see the map below. View HMS Spark 3rd war patrol in a larger map

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Scythian: HMS Scythian (T/Lt C.P. Thode, RNZNVR) departed Port Said for Aden.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Stygian: HMS Stygian (Lt. G.S.C. Clarabut, DSO, RN) sank three Japanese vessels in the Malacca Strait off the mouth of the Bernam river near position 03°40'N, 100°45'E. (All times are zone -6.5) 1417 hours - Destroyed a tongkang (no. 2115) of 100 tons by a demolition charge. Cargo was 120 tons of salt, 2 tons of fire brick and 20 tons of coke. 1430 hours - Dived for an aircraft. 1507 hours - Surfaced and destroyed a 40 tons junk with gunfire. 1553 hours - Destroyed a 20 tons junk (named Kim Keng Lee) by a demolition charge. As the junks skiff could only carry three out of the crew of six the other three were taken on board. At 1624 hours these were transferred to a sampan.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tribune: HMS Tribune (Lt. A.D. Piper, DSO, DSC, RD, RNR) conducted exercises off Blyth with a training class of new submariners.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Truant: HMS Truant (Lt. C.A.J. Nicoll, RN) is docked in AFD 2 at Portsmouth.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tudor: HMS Tudor (Lt. S.A. Porter, DSC, RN) is undocked.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tradewind: HMS Tradewind (Lt. J. Nash, DSC, RN) Topped off with fuel at Exmouth Gulf.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Tapir: HMS Tapir (Lt. J.C.Y. Roxbourgh, DSO, DSC and Bar, RN) conducted torpedo discharge trials off Arrochar.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Umbra: HMS Umbra (Lt. W.D.S. Scott, RN) conducted exercises off Portsmouth.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Unbending: HMS Unbending (Lt. J. Whitton, DSC, RN) conducted exercises off Blyth with a training class of new submariners.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Vampire: HMS Vampire (Lt. C.W. Taylor, RNR) conducted trials off Gibraltar.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Venturer: HMS Venturer (Lt. J.S. Launders, DSC and Bar, RN) arrived at Lerwick.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Vigorous: HMS Vigorous (Lt. J.C. Ogle, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Kilindini with aircraft.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Virtue: HMS Virtue (Lt. R.D. Cairns, DSC, RN) conducted A/S exercises off Varsova with HMIS Ramdas (T/Lt. H.D. Baker, RINR). These however soon had to be abandoned due to defects in HMIS Ramdas.

Royal Navy Submarine HMS Visigoth: HMS Visigoth (Lt. J.R.H. Haddow, DSC, RN) arrived at Colombo. She was assigned to A/S training duties.

Royal Navy Light cruiser HMS Ceylon: Operation Meridian. Air strikes against oil installations in the Palembang area (South-East Sumatra). On 16 January 1945 ' Force 63 ' made up of the battleship HMS King George V (Capt. T.E. Halsey, DSO, RN, flying the flag of Vice Admiral H.B. Rawlings, KCB, OBE, RN), aircraft carriers HMS Indomitable (Capt. J.A.S. Eccles, RN, flying the flag of Rear Admiral P.L. Vian, KCB, KBE, DSO and 2 Bars, RN), HMS Illustrious (Capt. C.E. Lambe, CB, CVO, RN), HMS Victorious (Capt. M.M. Denny, CB, CBE, RN), HMS Indefatigable (Capt. Q.D. Graham, CBE, DSO, RN), light cruisers HMS Argonaut (Capt. E.W.L. Longley-Cook, CBE, RN), HMS Euryalus (Capt. R. Oliver-Bellesis, RN), HMS Black Prince (Capt. D.M. Lees, DSO, RN), HMS Ceylon (Capt. G.B. Amery-Parkes, RN) and the destroyers HMS Grenville (Capt. H.P. Henderson, RN), HMCS Undaunted (Lt.Cdr. C.E.R. Sharp, RN), HMS Undine (Cdr. T.C. Robinson, RN), HMS Ursa (Cdr. D.B. Wyburd, DSC, RN), HMS Kempenfelt (Capt. E.G. McGregor, DSO, RN), HMS Wager (Lt.Cdr. R.C. Watkin, RN), HMS Wakeful (Lt.Cdr. G.D. Pound, DSC, RN), HMS Wessex (Lt.Cdr. R. Horncastle, RN), HMS Whelp (Cdr. G.A.F. Norfolk, RN) and Whirlwind (Cdr. W.A.F. Hawkins, DSO, DSC, OBE, RN). HMS Wessex apparently sailed from Trincomalee on the 17th and joined the Force at sea on the 19th. An oiling force (' Force 69 ') made up of the tankers Echodale (8150 GRT, built 1941), Wave King (8159 GRT, built 1944) and Empire Salvage (10746 GRT, built 1940) had already departed Trincomalee on 13 January. They were escorted by the destroyer HMS Urchin (Lt.Cdr. A.F. Harkness, DSC, OBE, RD, RNR). A fouth tanker, the Arndale (8296 GRT, built 1937) joined ' force 69 ' on 23 January coming from Fremantle. The submarines HMS Tantalus (Lt.Cdr. H.S. Mackenzie, DSO and Bar, RN), HMS Tantivy (Lt. P.S. May, RN) and HMS Sturdy (Lt. W.St.G. Anderson, DSC, RNR) were positioned for air/sea rescue duties. (Tantalus east of Sumatra, Tantivy west of Sumatra and Sturdy in the Sunda Strait area.) On 20 January ships from ' Force 63 ' were refuelled by ' Force 69 '. Due to the weather conditions this was done only with difficulty and some of the refuelling gear of the tankers was damaged. HMS Ceylon was now assigned to ' Force 69 ' to give protection to this Force. [Note: Arndale at this moment was not yet with ' Force 69 '.] ' Force 63 ' then proceeded on the first phase of the operation, to launch air strikes on the oil installations at Pladjoe (north of Palembang) which were to be flown off on 21 January but the weather prevented this. It was only at 24 January that the weather had cleared to enable flying operations. 43 Avengers, 12 Firefly's (equipped with rockets) and 50 Hellcat, Corsair and Seafire fighters were flown off. The enemy installations were damaged but at the cost of no less then 32 aircraft due to enemy action (7) or crash landings (25). 14 enemy fighters were reported shot down in the air and 38 aircraft were reported to have been destroyed on the gound. ' Force 63 ' then retired from the area to rendezvous with ' Force 69 ' and refuel. This was done on 26 / 27 January. ' Force 63 ' then proceeded to the launch position for the second phase of operation during which air attacks were to be made on oil installations at Soengi-Gerong (also near Palembang). 48 Avenger, 10 Fireflies, 24 Corsairs and 16 Hellcats were launched. During dogfight 30 Japanese aircraft were shot down and another 38 were reported as having been destroyed on the ground. 16 aircraft did not return to the carriers. A Japanese counter attack with 12 bombers failed. All were shot down by fighters from the Combat Air Patrol or AA fire from the ships. ' Force 63 ' then fuelled again from ' Force 69 ' on 30 January. ' Force 63 ' arrived at Fremantle on 4 February 1945. ' Force 69 ', minus Arndale and Wave King returned to Trincomalee on 6 February 1945. The other two tankers went to Australia. HMS Ceylon had parted company with ' Force 69 ' on 4 February and arrived at Trincomalee on 5 February.

US Navy Submarine USS R-4: USS R-4 (Lt. D.C. Peto, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-10: USS R-10 (Lt. R.D. McWenthy, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-13: USS R-13 (Lt. J.R. Edmands, USNR) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-14: USS R-14 (Lt.Cdr. J.H. Cunningham, Jr., USNR) conducted exercises off Key West.

US Navy Submarine USS R-20: USS R-20 (Lt.Cdr. J.B. Dudley, USN) conducted exercises off Key West.

Soviet Navy Submarine USSR ShCh-307: ShCh-307 torpedoed and sank the German merchant Henrietta Schulze (1923 GRT) south-west of Libau in position 56°19'N, 20°23'E.

Soviet Navy Submarine USSR ShCh-407: At 1745 hours, while on patrol north-west of Br?sterort, ShCh-407 attacked a German convoy with four torpedoes. The German auxiliary patrol vessel V 1704/Unitas (341 GRT) was missed in this attack.

US Navy Aircraft carrier USS Enterprise: USS Enterprise conducted an air raid against Hong Kong.

French Navy Submarine FR Le Centaure: Le Centaure departed New London, Connecticut, USA for Gibraltar via Horta, Azores.

Royal Norwegian Navy Submarine HNoMS Utsira: HNoMS Utsira (Lt. S. Valvatne) torpedoed and sank the German patrol vessel V 6408 /Skagerak (536 GRT, built 1942) north of Halmøya island, Norway in position 64°36'N, 10°40'E. She was on her way back to Trondheim having escorted U-311 outwards until midnight. (All times are zone -1) 0128 hours - Sighted signalling in true bearing 220°. Radar contact obtained on the same bearing, range 6000 yards. 0131 hours - Started radar plotting. True bearing now 172°, range 3800 yards. The contact could not be sighted from the bridge. 0143 hours - The vessel could now be seen from the bridge. A second vessel was now detected by radar to be near the Original contact. Plot gave an enemy course of 040°, speed 12 knots. 0155 hours - Plot gave still the same course and speed. Lt. Valvatne had watched the contact closely for a period. It was thought to be a 2000 tons merchant vessel, heavily laden. No other vessel could be seen in company though. 0158 hours - Altered course to 100° to attack. 0200 hours - In position 64°36'N, 10°40'E commenced firing four torpedoes from 1200 yards. Turned away to starboard on completion of firing the torpedo salvo. 0201 hours - 57 seconds after firing the first torpedo a torpedo hit was seen under the bridge of the enemy and the ship blew up with a series of prolonged explosions. Smoke covered the view. Above the smoke approximately 200 feet into the air pieces of the bridge and burning wreckage and sparks were seen flung up. 30 seconds later the smoke cleared and the vessels bow was seen vertical in the water and was sinking. This was the only thing seen. It was considered that part of the cargo must have been ammunition.

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